State-by-State Info

To find out the laws in your state, click on your state in the map above or in the list below.

Recall States — From Federal to Local

Nine states have clear constitutional or statutory provisions for recall of all, every, or any elected officials, which we believe could include federal officials.

States With Limited Recall Provisions

Twenty-nine states have more narrowly defined recall provisions. Here, to include members of Congress, it would be necessary to encourage the state legislatures to extend their recall provisions to cover federal officials. This language should be modeled on that of New Jersey:

"The people reserve unto themselves the power to recall, after at least one year of service, any elected official in this State or representing the State in the United States Congress. The Legislature shall enact laws to provide for such recall elections."

States Without Recall

Ten states have neither recall nor the initiative process. If you live in one of those states, the only remedy is to elect state representatives who favor these provisions and who might propose state constitutional amendments to establish them.

States With the Initiative Process

Twenty-five states have the Initiative Process, by which citizens propose statutes or constitutional amendments and place them before voters for approval. (New Mexico and Maryland have referendums, but not initiatives.) Here, citizens can create or extend recall via initiative to other officials.

Detailed information on state initiative processes is available at: and